Category Archives: CPR

What are Universal Precautions?

The Importance of Universal Precautions and How to Protect Yourself from Bloodborne Pathogens

Universal precaution is an approach to infection control that urges medical providers, first aid providers, and bystanders to treat all human blood and other potentially infectious materials such as cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluid, pleural fluid, pericardial fluid, peritoneal fluid, semen, vaginal secretions, amniotic fluid, saliva in dental procedures, and any body fluid that is visibly contaminated with blood as if it were known to be infectious for HIV, hepatitis, staph, or other bloodborne pathogens (Occupational Safety and Health Administration).

Individuals who use universal precautions are much less likely to be exposed to bloodborne pathogens

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that more than 5.6 million workers in the healthcare industry and related occupations are at risk of occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens. These figures don’t include the tens of millions of people who are first aid certified each year and who play an increasingly important role as first responders to emergency situations.

In case you were curious, not all fluids require special handling: “Universal precautions do not apply to feces, nasal secretions, sputum, sweat, tears, urine, and vomitus unless they contain visible blood. The risk of transmission of HIV and HBV from these fluids and materials is extremely low or nonexistent” (CDC).  

The Purpose of Universal Precautions

The purpose of practicing universal precautions is twofold: universal precautions protect patients from further harm or infection, while simultaneously protecting the medical or first aid practitioner from contracting a bloodborne illness from an infected individual.  

Universal Precaution Equipment

Although unbroken skin is a good barrier against bloodborne pathogens, even the smallest cut, blister, blemish, or skin opening can admit pathogens. Bloodborne pathogens may also be transmitted through the mucous membranes of the eyes, nose, and mouth. Equip yourself with personal protective equipment such as:

If your office or facility has an AED, First Aid, or Stop the Bleed® kits, you should include standard universal precaution personal protective equipment.

10 Ways Protect Yourself from Bloodborne Pathogens

If you ever find yourself in a situation where you need to perform CPR, give mouth-to-mouth resuscitation, administer first aid, or are otherwise exposed to blood or other potentially infectious materials, you must protect yourself to prevent exposure to pathogens.

  1. Treat all blood and body fluid spills as if they were infectious.
  2. When providing first aid or CPR, protect yourself first (put on gloves and use a face mask), then treat the victim.
  3. Coach injured individuals to apply bandages and to exert pressure on a wound if they’re able to do so.
  4. Wear appropriate personal protective equipment: gloves, goggles, face shields, etc…
  5. When performing CPR, always use a mask equipped with a one-way valve to prevent contact with potentially infectious body fluids.
  6. Contain spills immediately, then clean up and disinfect the area.
  7. Handle all trash with caution — as though it contains sharps and/or infectious items.
  8. When removing contaminated clothing, carefully turn all items inside out as they’re removed to contain contaminants.
  9. Carefully dispose of contaminated items in appropriately labeled containers.
  10. After removing personal protective equipment, vigorously wash hands or other affected body parts with soap and warm water. If soap is not available, use hand sanitizer or sanitizing wipes.

Cardio Partners is a trusted nationwide CPR, First Aid, AED, and bloodborne pathogen training center. We offer high-quality training courses in all 50 states in both traditional classroom settings and in blended learning courses. To learn more about our courses or to schedule a training, call our team at 866-349-4362 or email Cardio Partners at customerservice@cardiopartners.com.

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AED Use on Infants and Children

Can you use an adult AED on an infant or small child?

In a word, YES! Although AEDs are manufactured with adults in mind, pediatric settings and pads adjust the energy level used, making them safe for young children who weigh less than 55 pounds. The American Heart Association recommends that pediatric attenuated pads should be used on children under the age of eight and on infants. Adult pads are used on children eight years and older.

However, the Journal of Pediatric Emergency Care notes that “In the absence of prompt defibrillation for ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia, survival is unlikely. Automated external defibrillators should be used in infants with suspected cardiac arrest, if a manual defibrillator with a trained rescuer is not immediately available. Automated external defibrillators that attenuate the energy dose (eg, via application of pediatric pads) are recommended for infants. If an AED with pediatric pads is not available, the AED with adult pads should be used.”

We think this bears repeating: if infant or pediatric settings and pads are not available, rescuers may use adult pads on infants and young children. Apply one pad to the front of the chest and the other to the child’s back so that the pads do not come into contact with one another.

Once the pads are attached, follow the instructions given by the AED.

Remember, without prompt treatment (CPR and defibrillation), sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) is always fatal. If you have an AED and you suspect that a child or infant is in cardiac arrest, use it!

All AEDs are designed to analyze a victim’s heart rhythm regardless of age, and if a shockable rhythm is detected, the device will prompt the rescuer to administer an electric shock. Some devices will administer shocks automatically. An AED will not advise or deliver a shock unless the victim’s heart rhythm is in one of two shockable rhythms. You cannot accidentally shock someone with an AED.

How Do You Recognize Pediatric AED Pads?

Pediatric electrode pads are typically smaller and feature a different color packaging than adult pads. Generally speaking, the instructions and pad placement illustrations will depict a small child or infant. If your AED requires a child/infant key, the key will likely have an illustration on it showing the proper placement of the adult AED electrode pads for use on a child or infant.

How Common is Sudden Cardiac Arrest in Children?

Thankfully, SCA is fairly uncommon in children. According to the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, “Although SCA is rare in children, it can affect anyone, even those who are physically fit. Each year, SCA claims the lives of over 2,000 children and adolescents in the U.S. and accounts for approximately 3-5% of all deaths in children aged 5-19 years. It is also responsible for 10-15 percent of sudden unexpected infant deaths.”

The 2015 AHA Heart and Stroke Statistics released by the American Heart Association found that 6,300 Americans under the age of 18 experienced an EMS-assessed out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). When CPR and AEDs are administered within three to five minutes of cardiac arrest, sudden death can be prevented.

What Causes Sudden Cardiac Arrest in Young People?

Some of the most common causes of sudden cardiac death in young people include:

Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM)

A condition that’s typically inherited, HCM causes the heart muscle cells to enlarge, which then causes the walls of the ventricle (usually the left ventricle) to thicken.

Congenital Abnormalities

Occasionally people are born with unusual or abnormal heart arteries. If this occurs, arteries may become compressed during exercise and not provide adequate blood flow to the heart. Some congenital cardiac abnormalities include Long QT syndrome, atrial septal defects, ventricular septal defects, and Ebstein anomaly.

Commotio Cordis

Commotio cordis is a rare cause of sudden cardiac death that occurs as the result of a blunt blow to the chest. Young athletes are especially susceptible and the average age of athletes who suffer from sudden cardiac arrest is just 17.

How is Infant and Child CPR different than Adult CPR?

Child and infant CPR is different from adult CPR. We strongly urge you to take an AHA-approved CPR and AED certification class. These classes will teach you how to perform adult, child, and infant CPR and how to effectively use an AED.

CPR for children is very similar to adult CPR, however, rescuers should start CPR before calling 911. After two minutes of CPR with rescue breaths, call 911. Because a child’s airway is more fragile than an adult’s, use caution when providing rescue breaths and be careful not to tilt the head back too far. When providing chest compressions, use one or two hands, depending on the size of the child. The depth of compressions should be only one and a half inches. The ratio of compressions to rescue breaths, 30:2, is the same for children as for adults.

It stands to reason that great care should be taken when performing CPR on an infant. Although a baby’s bones are more flexible than an adult’s, they’re also much more delicate. As with older children, you’ll want to begin CPR on an infant before calling 911. Of course, if there’s another person at the scene, ask them to call 911 immediately.

To learn more about our CPR and AED Training or to purchase an AED with pediatric capabilities, visit aed.com or call Cardio Partners at 866-349-4362. You can also email us at customerservice@cardiopartners.com.

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Be Ready to Help in a Heartbeat

Student athletes spend hours training for competition — but how about training to save a life?

SCA on soccer field.

Studies show that 6,000 – 8,000 teens experience sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) annually.1 Every three days, a student athlete falls victim to sudden cardiac death.2

Student athletes are at heightened risk for SCA due to the additional strain placed on the heart during athletic conditioning and competition. Contributing factors include the influx of adrenaline, dehydration, fever, and changes in electrolytes.3

While SCA isn’t preventable, sudden cardiac death can be. All it takes is to educate students on the symptoms that can precede an SCA event and to have an automated external defibrillator (AED) readily available during athletic practices and competition.

SCA can strike without warning, but sometimes symptoms are presented. Student athletes often dismiss symptoms preceding an SCA event for fear of losing precious game time. That’s why it’s vitally important for athletes to fully understand the risks they face and feel confident speaking up to prevent sudden cardiac death.

Here are some of the warning signs:5

  • Fainting
  • Chest pain
  • Shortness of breath
  • Irregular heartbeat – racing or fluttering
  • Dizziness or lightheadedness
  • Extreme fatigue

Nine out of ten victims who receive a shock from an AED within the first minute of SCA survive.4 Ensuring that your students and coaches are trained to respond to an SCA emergency could help save a life.

Download the ‘Help in a Heartbeat’ flyer to educate your team about the symptoms of SCA.

To learn more about the latest package from Cardiopartners to help your athletic teams respond to any emergency, visit: https://www.aed.com/zoll-aed-plus-athletic-director-s-package

1 “Sudden Cardiac Arrest and Teenage Athletes: What’s the Risk?”. Promise powered by Nemours Children’s Health System. https://blog.nemours.org/2017/02/sudden-cardiac-arrest-teenage-athletes-risk/

2 “Young Athletes & Sudden Cardiac Arrest”. Boston Scientific. http://www.your-heart-health.com/content/close-the-gap/en-US/heart-disease-facts/young-athletes.html

3 “Sports and Sudden Cardiac Arrest(SCA)”. Cardiosmart – American College of Cardiology. https://www.cardiosmart.org/Heart-Conditions/Sports-and-Sudden-Cardiac-Arrest

4Source: 2017, AHA Mediagenic Survey Results; 2017, AHA with Edelman Intelligence; 2017, AHA with BLR Media; Postgrad Medical Journal, October 2007.

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